In the 1850s, Europeans colonized the island group called "Aotearoa" by the natives. (They renamed it New Zealand.) When they arrived, they found the Maori playing a game called MuTorere. It seemed like a simple puzzle, but baffled the settlers. The game's popularity was rekindled in the 1970s, and is once again a challenging strategy game in the Peg Pastimes series.
*This is a re-loaded update, with thanks to Martin Padda for pointing out a missing rule! (I got a little clip-happy in the editing process.)